Questions And Answers On Eukaryotic Cell Structure and Functions

Question: What are the membrane-bound structures inside the cell called?

Answer: Organelle

Explanation: Eukaryotic cells are more complex than the Prokaryotic cells. They have structures called Organelles inside the cell that are bound by a protective membrane. They carry out different functions like digestion, generating energy and removing waste.

Question: Are all Eukaryotes multicellular?

Answer: No

Explanation: Eukaryote in Greek means True Nucleus. Any organism, either unicellular or multicellular that has a true Nucleus and membrane-bound organelles is a Eukaryote.
Amoeba and Paramecium are examples for unicellular Eukaryotes. Plants and Animals are considered multicellular Eukaryotes.

Question: What is the outermost layer of an Animal Cell?

Answer: Cell Membrane

Explanation: Cell Membrane, also called Plasma Membrane, are semi-permeable, flexible, protective covering of the Animal Cell. They are porous, so they can let in the necessary materials required by the cell and remove any waste generated from the cell. They are made up of two layers of lipids (structure similar to fat) embedded with proteins.

Question: What is the outermost layer of a Plant Cell?

Answer: Cell Wall

Explanation: Plant Cell have a rigid, nonflexible outer layer surrounding the cell membrane called the cell wall. It is made up of cellulose: a complex structure that gives strength and protection.

Question: What is the gel-like structure inside the cell that contains all the organelles?

Answer: Cytoplasm

Explanation: Cytoplasm is a gel-like region surrounded by the Cell Membrane. It is made up of Cytosol : a semi-liquid component and the organelles.

Question: Which structure in the Eukaryotic cell contains the genetic material?

Answer: Nucleus

Explanation: Nucleus is a vital part of the cell because it contains the genetic information and controls the cell's growth, development and reproduction.
Nucleus is a spherical-shaped structure surrounded by two double-layered membranes called the Nuclear Envelope.

Question: What is the entangled mass of thread-like structure present in the Nucleus?

Answer: Chromatin

Explanation: Chromatin is a long entangled mass of genetic material present in the Nucleus. It is composed of DNA and proteins. When the cell is about to divide, the Chromatin compresses to form the chromosomes.
The Chromatin's main function is to compress the DNA using the protein called Histone into compact units so that it can easily fit inside the nucleus.

Question: Which cell structure is called the powerhouse of the cell?

Answer: Mitochondria

Explanation: For cells to carry out any activity, it needs energy. This energy is produced by Mitochondria in the form of ATP (Adenosine Triphosphate) molecules, also called the energy currency of the cell. ATP is the biochemical way to store and use the energy in the cells.

Question: Which cell structure has Ribosomes on its surface?

Answer: Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum

Explanation: Endoplasmic Reticulum(ER) are large networks of membrane-bound tubes and flat sacs that are connected to the Nuclear Envelop.
There are two parts of ER which carry out different functions. The Rough ER has Ribosomes on its surface and they look like flattened sacs. The smooth ER does not have any Ribosomes on its surface and look like tubes.

Question: Which cell structure is responsible for the manufacture of Protein?

Answer: Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum

Explanation: RER manufactures different kinds of Proteins including the protein found in membranes. Ribosomes synthesize proteins by joining amino acids. After the protein is ready, it moves into the Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum sacs, where it is packed and transported to either the Golgi Body or the cell membrane.

Question: Which organelle produces Lipids?

Answer: Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum

Explanation: Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum synthesizes Lipids and Carbohydrates. Lipids together with Proteins are used to build the cell membranes. This process of building cell membrane is called membrane biogenesis. SER also helps in transporting the protein and lipids to other parts of the cell.

Question: Who discovered the Golgi Apparatus?

Answer: Camillo Golgi

Explanation: Golgi Apparatus or Golgi body was discovered by Camillo Golgi in the year 1898.
Golgi Body is made up of flat sacs called cisterns. The protein and lipids transported by the Endoplasmic Reticulum are modified in the cisterns and repackaged. They are then transported to different parts of the cell or stored for future use.

Question: Which organelle is known as the Suicide bag of the Cell?

Answer: Lysosome

Explanation: Lysosome have powerful digestive enzymes. They break down any waste, foreign materials, and worn-out organelles into tiny molecules with their powerful enzymes.
In case the Lysosome breaks due to some damage, all the enzymes in it will be released to the cytoplasm. The enzymes are so strong that it will digest the entire cell, thus killing the cell. This is the reason why they are called the Suicide bags of the cell.

Question: Which organelle stores water?

Answer: Vacuoles

Explanation: Vacuoles are storage sacs with single membrane. They store water that contains organic and inorganic materials like enzymes. They can also contain some solid and waste materials.
In Plant Cells, Vacuoles are relatively larger and are mostly used to store water.

Question: What is the cell structure in plant where photosynthesis takes place?

Answer: Chloroplast

Explanation: Chloroplast are a kind of Plastid that are present only in Plant Cell. They are the region of photosynthesis.
Plastids are double membraned organelle found mostly in Plant and Fungus Cells. Some are also found in other Eukaryotic cells. There are different kinds of Plastids that carry out different function. One example is the Leucoplasts which stores starch, proteins and fats.